Альгамбра (исп. Alhambra), город в округе Лос-Анджелес, штат Калифорния. По данным 2009 года численность населения этого города составляет 85 068 человек. Город А. получил свое название после выхода книги Вашингтона Ирвинга, а не в честь одноименного дворца.
Изначально А. являлась невключенной территорией в середине XIX века, но 11 июля1903 года получила статус города и стала пригородом Лос-Анджелеса. Высшая школа А. была основана пятью годами ранее — в 1898 году, а городской пожарный департамент, напротив, тремя года позже — в 1906-м.
Центром торговли и деловым районом города с 1895 года является пересечение улиц Мэйн и Гарфилд.
За годы своего существования А. испытала на себе несколько волн приливаиммигрантов: итальянцев в 1950-х, мексиканцев в 1960-х и китайцев в 1980-х.
По данным переписи населения 2000 года в городе проживает 85 804 человека. Плотность населения составляет 4 347,7 человек на км². Расовый состав выглядит следующим образом: 51% азиатов, 35,5% латиноамериканцев, 28% белых, 16,4% других рас, 1,8% черных, 0,5% индейцев, 0,2% жителей тихоокеанских островов.
Alhambra ( /ælˈhæmbrə/ or /ɑːlˈhɑːmbrə/; Spanish: [aˈlambɾa]) is a city (incorporated on July 11, 1903) located in the western San Gabriel Valleyregion of Los Angeles County, California, United States, which is approximately eight miles from the Downtown Los Angeles civic center. As of the 2010 census, the population was 83,089, down from 85,804 at the 2000 census. The city's ZIP codes are 91801 and 91803 (plus 91802 for P.O. boxes).
Alhambra is named after Washington Irving's book Tales of the Alhambra, not after the Alhambra palace itself. Alhambra was founded as asuburb of Los Angeles in 1903. Alhambra existed as an unincorporated area during the mid-19th century. The first school in Alhambra was Ramona Convent Secondary School built on hillside property donated by the prominent James de Barth Shorb family. Thirteen years before the city was incorporated, several prominent San Gabriel Valley families interested in the Catholic education of their daughters established the school in 1890. The city's first public high school, Alhambra High School, was established in 1898, five years before the city's incorporation. The Alhambra Fire Department was established in 1906. On July 11, 1903, the City of Alhambra was incorporated.
Alhambra was originally promoted as a "city of homes," and many of Alhambra's homes have historical significance. They include styles such as Craftsman, Bungalow, Spanish Mediterranean, Spanish Colonial, Italian Beaux-Arts, and Arts & Crafts. Several residential areas have been designated as Historic Neighborhoods by the city, including the Bean Tract (formerly owned by early resident Jacob Bean), the Midwick Tract (site of the former Midwick Country Club), the Airport Tract (formerly the landing pad for Alhambra Airport), and the Emery Park area. There are also a large number of condominiums, rental apartments, and mixed-use residential/commercial buildings, especially in the Downtown area.
The main business district of Alhambra — at the intersection of Main & Garfield — has been a center of commerce since 1895. By the 1950s, it had taken on an upscale look and was "the" place to go in the San Gabriel Valley. While unfortunately, many of the classic historical buildings have been torn down over the years, the rebuilding of Main Street has led to numerous dining, retail and entertainment establishments. Alhambra has experienced waves of new immigrants, beginning with Italians in the 1950s, Mexicans in the 1960s, and Chinese in the 1980s. As a result, a very active Chinese business district has developed on Valley Boulevard, including Chinese supermarkets, restaurants, shops, banks, realtors, and medical offices. The Valley Boulevard Corridor has become a national hub for many Asian-owned bank headquarters, although there are other nationally-recognized retailers.
The historic Garfield Theatre, on Valley Blvd and Garfield Avenue 1925-2001, was formerly a Vaudeville venue and is rumored to have hosted the Gumm Sisters, featuring a very young Judy Garland. Faded from its original glory, for its last few years it was purchased and ran Chinese-language films, but in 2001 went out of business. Subsequently, developers have remodeled the dilapidated building turning it into a vibrant commercial center with many Chinese stores and eateries.
In 2003, actress Lana Clarkson was shot to death in the Alhambra home of record producer Phil Spector. Spector lived in Alhambra's largest and most notable residence, the Pyrenees Castle, built in 1926. In 2009, Spector was convicted of second-degree murder in connection with her death.
Alhambra is bordered by South Pasadena on the northwest, San Marino on the north, San Gabriel on the east, Monterey Park on the south, and the Los Angeles districts of Monterey Hills and El Sereno on the west.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.6 square miles (20 km2), over 99% of which is land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Alhambra had a population of 83,089. The population density was 10,887.4 people per square mile (4,203.6/km²). The racial makeup of Alhambra was 23,521 (28.3%) White, 1,281 (1.5%) African American, 538 (0.6%) Native American, 43,957 (52.9%) Asian, 81 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 10,805 (13.0%) from other races, and 2,906 (3.5%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28,582 persons (34.4%).
The Census reported that 82,475 people (99.3% of the population) lived in households, 132 (0.2%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 482 (0.6%) were institutionalized.
There were 29,217 households, out of which 9,357 (32.0%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 13,679 (46.8%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 4,818 (16.5%) had a female householder with no husband present, 2,097 (7.2%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,370 (4.7%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 183 (0.6%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 6,479 households (22.2%) were made up of individuals and 2,301 (7.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82. There were 20,594 families (70.5% of all households); the average family size was 3.30.
The population was spread out with 15,707 people (18.9%) under the age of 18, 7,876 people (9.5%) aged 18 to 24, 24,907 people (30.0%) aged 25 to 44, 22,687 people (27.3%) aged 45 to 64, and 11,912 people (14.3%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.3 years. For every 100 females there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.4 males.
There were 30,915 housing units at an average density of 4,050.9 per square mile (1,564.1/km²), of which 11,916 (40.8%) were owner-occupied, and 17,301 (59.2%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.3%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.3%. 35,774 people (43.1% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 46,701 people (56.2%) lived in rental housing units.
As of the census of 2000, there were 85,804 people, 29,111 households, and 20,668 families residing in the city. The population density was 11,257.3 inhabitants per square mile (4,347.7/km²). There were 30,069 housing units at an average density of 3,945.0 per square mile (1,523.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 47.22% Asian, 35.49% of the population Hispanic of any race, 16.25% from other races, 13.8%White, 1.67% Black or African American, 0.72% Native American, 0.10% Pacific Islander, and 4.01% from two or more races.
There were 29,111 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.0% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.88 and the average family size was 3.41.
In the city the population was spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 34.0% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, and 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 89.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $39,213, and the median income for a family was $43,245. Males had a median income of $33,847 versus $29,122 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,350. About 11.5% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.2% of those under age 18 and 10.6% of those age 65 or over.
The city is governed by a five-member city council; one member of the council is chosen as mayor. Council members are nominated by district and elected for four-year terms. Half of the council seats are up for election in each even-numbered year.
In the state legislature Alhambra is located in the 22nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Gilbert Cedillo, and in the 49th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Mike Eng. Federally, Alhambra is located in California's 29th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of D +12 and is represented by Democrat Adam Schiff.
The San Bernardino Freeway (I-10) runs through the city's southern portions, and the Long Beach Freeway (I-710) has its northern terminus at Valley Boulevard in the far southwestern portions of the city. Major thoroughfares within the city include Atlantic and Valley boulevards, Mission Road, Fremont and Garfield avenues, and Main Street.
Public transportation in Alhambra is provided by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) as well as the Alhambra Community Transit.
The California High-Speed Rail Authority is considering proposals to a build high-speed rail system through Alhambra along the I=10, San Bernardino Freeway, corridor from the east city limits to west city limits. In late July 2010, the Authority told the city the options under consideration include building tracks down the center of the freeway and parallel to the freeway along Ramona Road. As proposed, there would be a 50-foot-wide (15 m) deck set on top of 35-foot-high (11 m) posts placed every 100 feet (30 m). The proposal is part of the high-speed rail network currently planned for California. It is part of the line between Los Angeles Union Station and San Diego, through the Inland Empire. Residents and city leaders voiced opposition to the plan to route the high-speed trains through the city in public meetings.
The local newspaper is the San Gabriel Valley Tribune. The regional newspaper is the Los Angeles Times.
The Alhambra Source is a hyperlocal, online-only news site that aims to cover news and be a trilingual voice for local storytellers. It is a collaborative effort between Alhambra residents, professional journalists and web developers, University of Southern California researchers and students. The Alhambra Source was launched in September 2010 as an offshoot of a larger research project of theUSC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism.
"The Hat", a local icon, was opened in Alhambra in 1951. It is the original, family owned, outdoor restaurant of what is now a well-known small Southern California chain. The company has kept to its roots by keeping its retro neon signs featuring a chef’s toque and the words "World Famous Pastrami'. It was a prototype of today's fast food restaurants. Its customers consume 13 to 15 tons of pastrami per week.
On the western edge of town, the Ratkovich Company, which owns The Alhambra office complex, is moving forward with plans to build 351 condominium units on 10.5 acres (42,000 m2), as well as a parking structure after completing the recent LA Fitness gym — valued at $190 million.
According to the "City Alhambra 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report", for the year ending in June 2009, the top employers in the city are (number of workers): Los Angeles County Department of Public Works (3,600), Alhambra Unified School District (2,136), County of Los Angeles (1,500), Southern California Edison (800), City of Alhambra (650), Alhambra Hospital (600), Empire Building Maintenance (420), Costco (369), Southwest Administrators (285) and Target (130).
Each year, Valley Boulevard hosts the San Gabriel Valley Lunar New Year Parade and Festival, which runs from Del Mar to Garfield Avenue. The event is of such significance to the majority Asian American demographic in Alhambra that it is broadcast live on Chinese radio, KWRM AM 1370, broadcast locally on KSCI-18, and later on worldwide cable and satellite TV.
From 2002 to 2008, Alhambra was the host of the Summer Jubilee, a street carnival and music concert held every Saturday, until its postponement due to loss of funds caused by the late 2000s recession.
Alhambra is home to the Los Angeles campus of Platt College, the Alhambra branch of Everest College (formerly Bryman), and the Los Angeles Campus of Alliant International University
Alhambra is home to the University of Southern California's Health Sciences Alhambra campus, site of the university's Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research (IPR) and USC'smaster's degree program in public health.
Public schools in Alhambra, Monterey Park, and portions of Rosemead and San Gabriel are provided by the Alhambra Unified School District, whose mission is "To ensure the educational success of all students by having a comprehensive educational program where students can learn and become productive members of a diverse society." Elementary and middle schools (K- 8) located in the city of Alhambra are: Martha Baldwin Elementary School, Fremont Elementary School, Garfield Elementary School, Granada Elementary School, Marguerita Elementary School, Park Elementary School, William Northrup Elementary School, Ramona Elementary School, and Emery Park Elementary School.
The city is served by three Alhambra Unified School District public high schools: Alhambra High School, founded in 1898; Mark Keppel High School; and San Gabriel High School (which despite its name is located within Alhambra). Alhambra Unified School District also includes Garfield Community Adult School.
Historic Ramona Convent Secondary School is a Catholic all girls college preparatory school for grades 7-12 in Alhambra. The first school in Alhambra, the first building was dedicated at Ramona Acres on January 29, 1890 on the hillside property that was later called Shorb, after the prominent family that donated the property. Ramona received Blue Ribbon School of Excellence status from the U.S. Department of Education in 1983 and again in 1998.
Other sectarian schools in the city include St. Therese School (Catholic, grades K-8); St. Thomas More Elementary School (Catholic, K-8); All Souls Parish School (Catholic, K-8); and Emmaus Lutheran School (Lutheran, PK-8). Nonsectarian private schools include Oneanta Montessori School (grades PK-6), Sherman School (10-12), and Leeway School (3-12).
Famous natives and residents: