Центральный Дом Знаний - Альд Мануций

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Альд Мануций

АЛЬД МАНУЦИЙ (1449—1515) — итальянский книгопечатник и издатель, работавший в Вене­ции в эпоху Возрождения. Основав в 1494 типо­графию, он поставил дело книгопечатания на капиталистических началах и приступил к изданию тщательно проверяемых и корректируе­мых учеными сочинений как греческих и римских классиков, тан и классиков эпохи Возрождения. Издания А. М. — альдины  — получили ши­рокое распространение в Европе. После смерти А. М. издательство под руководством его род­ственников выпустило до 1597 более 900 разных изданий.

А́льд Ману́ций (италAldo Manuzio, 1449, Бассиано, Италия — 5.02.1515, Венеция), ит. гуманист, издатель и типограф, работавший в Венеции. Особенно известен изданием авторов древнегреческой литературы. Им был изобретен типографский шрифт курсив.

Его сын Паоло был также известным издателем.

Aldus Pius Manutius (1449 – February 6, 1515),  the Latinised name of Aldo Manuzio —sometimes called Aldus Manutius, the Elder to distinguish him from his grandson, Aldus Manutius, the Younger—was an Italian humanist who became a printer and publisher when he founded the Aldine Press at Venice.

His publishing legacy includes the distinctions of inventing italic type, establishing the modern use of the semicolon, and introducing inexpensive books in small formats bound in vellum that were read much like modern paperbacks.

Manutius was born in Bassiano, in the Papal States, in what is now the province of Latina, some 100 km south of Rome, during theItalian Renaissance period.

His family was well off and Manutius was educated as a humanistic scholar, studying Latin in Rome under Gasparino da Verona, andGreek at Ferrara under Guarino da Verona.

In 1482, he went to reside at Mirandola with his old friend and fellow student, the illustrious Giovanni Pico. There he stayed two years, pursuing his studies in Greek literature. Before Pico moved to Florence, he procured for Manutius the post of tutor to his nephewsAlberto and Lionello Pio, princes of Carpi. Alberto Pio supplied Manutius with funds for starting his printing press, and gave him lands at Carpi.

Manutius became a tutor to some of the great Italian ducal families in his early career. 

The leading publisher and printer of the Venetian High Renaissance, Aldus set up a definite scheme of book design, produced the first italic type, introduced small and handy pocket editions (octavos) of the classics, and applied several innovations in binding technique and design for use on a broad scheme.

He commissioned Francesco Griffo to cut a slanted type known today as italic.

He and his grandson, also a printer, are credited with introducing a standardized system of punctuation.

The software company Aldus is named after him. 

In 1501, Aldus began to use as his publisher's device the image of a dolphin wrapped around an anchor.  His editions of the classics were so highly respected that the dolphin-and-anchor device was almost immediately pirated by French and Italian publishers. More recently, the device has been used by the 19th-century London firm of William Pickering, and by Doubleday. Aldus adapted the image from the reverse of ancient Roman coins issued during the reigns of the Emperors Titus and Domitian, AD 80-82. The dolphin and anchor emblem is associated with "Festina lente" (Hasten slowly), a motto that Aldus had begun to use as early as 1499, after receiving a Roman coin from Pietro Bembo which bore the emblem and motto.  

Type designs based on work designed by Griffo and commissioned by Aldus Manutius include Bembo, Poliphilus, and Hermann Zapf's Palatino and Aldus. 

It was Manutius' ambition to secure the literature of Greece from further loss by committing its chief masterpieces to type. He introduced personal or pocket editions of the classics in Greek and Latin that all could own.

Before his time four Italian towns had won the honors of Greek publications: Milan, with the grammar of Lascaris, Aesop, Theocritus, a Greek Psalter, and Isocrates, between 1476 and 1493; Venice, with the Erotemata of Chrysoloras in 1484; Vicenza, with reprints of Lascaris' grammar and the Erotemata, in 1488 and 1490; and Florence, with Alopa's Homer, in 1488.

Of these works, only three, the Milanese Theocritus and Isocrates and the Florentine Homer, were classics.

Manutius selected Venice as the most appropriate station for his labours. He settled there in 1490, and soon afterwards gave to the world editions of the Hero and Leander of Musaeus, the Galeomyomachia, and the Greek Psalter. These have no date; but they are the earliest tracts issued from his press, and are called by him "Precursors of the Greek Library."

In Venice, Manutius gathered an army of Greek scholars and compositors around him. His trade was carried on by Greeks, and Greek was the language of his household. Instructions to typesetters and binders were given in Greek.

The preface to his editions were written in Greek. Greeks from Crete collated manuscripts, read proofs, and gave models of calligraphy for casts of Greek type. Not counting the craftsmen employed in purely manual labour, Manutius entertained as many as thirty of these Greek assistants in his family.

His own industry and energy were unremitting. In 1495 he issued the first volume of his edition of Aristotle. Four more volumes completed the work in 1497–1498. Nine comedies of Aristophanes appeared in 1498. Thucydides, Sophocles, and Herodotus followed in 1502; Xenophon's Hellenics andEuripides in 1503; Demosthenes in 1504. It is possible that during this period, in his printing works, Hieromonk Makarije was educated, who would later found the Obod printing works of Cetinje and print the first book in Serbian and Romanian.[5]

The Second Italian War, which pressed heavily on Venice at this time, suspended Manutius' labours for a period. But in 1508 he resumed his series with an edition of the minor Greek orators; and in 1509 appeared the lesser works of Plutarch. Then came another stoppage when the League of Cambrai drove Venice back to her lagoons, and all the forces of the republic were concentrated on a life-or-death struggle with the allied powers of Europe. In 1513, Manutius reappeared with an edition of Plato, which he dedicated to Leo X in a preface eloquently and earnestly comparing the miseries of warfare and the woes of Italy with the sublime and tranquil objects of the student's life. Pindar, Hesychius, and Athenaeus followed in 1514. At the end of his life, he had begun an edition of the Septuagint, the first to be published; it appeared posthumously in 1518.

These complete the list of Manutius' prime services to Greek literature. But it may be well in this place to observe that his successors continued his work by giving Pausanias, Strabo, Aeschylus, Galen, Hippocrates, and Longinus to the world in first editions. Omission has been made of Manutius' reprints, in order that the attention of the reader might be concentrated on his labours in editing Greek classics from manuscripts. Other presses were at work in Italy; and, as the classics issued from Florence, Rome or Milan, Manutius took them up, bestowing in each case fresh industry upon the collation of codices and the correction of texts.

Manutius' enthusiasm for Greek literature was not confined to the printing-room. Whatever the students of this century may think of his scholarship, they must allow that only vast erudition and thorough familiarity with the Greek language could have enabled him to accomplish what he did. In his own day, Manutius' learning won the hearty acknowledgment of ripe scholars.

In order to promote Greek studies, Manutius founded an academy of Hellenists in 1502 under the title of the New Academy. Its rules were written in Greek. Its members were obliged to speak Greek. Their names were Hellenized, and their official titles were Greek. The biographies of all the famous men who were enrolled in this academy must be sought in the pages of Didot's Alde Manuce. It is enough here to mention that they includedDesiderius Erasmus and the Englishman Thomas Linacre.

When he died, bequeathing Greek literature as an inalienable possession to the world, he was a poor man. 

Nor was the Aldine press idle in regard to Latin and Italian classics. The Asolani of Bembo, the collected writings of Poliziano, the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, Dante's Divine Comedy, Petrarch's poems, a collection of early Latin poets of the Christian era, the letters of the younger Pliny, the poems ofPontanus, Sannazaro's Arcadia, Quintilian, Valerius Maximus, and the Adagia of Erasmus were printed, either in first editions, or with a beauty of type and paper never reached before, between the years 1495 and 1514. For these Italian and Latin editions, Manutius had the elegant type struck which bears his name. It is said to have been copied from Petrarch's handwriting, and was cast under the direction of Francesco da Bologna, who has been identified by Panizzi with Francia the painter.

To his fellow workers he was uniformly generous, free from jealousy, and prodigal of praise. While aiming at that excellence of typography which renders his editions the treasures of the book-collector, he strove at the same time to make them cheap. His great undertaking was carried on under continual difficulties, arising from strikes among his workmen, the piracies of rivals, and the interruptions of war. 

In 1505, Manutius married Maria, daughter of Andrea Torresano of Asola. Torresano had already bought the press established by Nicholas Jenson at Venice. Therefore Manutius' marriage combined two important publishing firms. Henceforth the names Aldus and Asolanus were associated on the title pages of the Aldine publications; and after Manutius' death in 1515, Torresano and his two sons carried on the business during the minority of Manutius' children. The device of the dolphin and theanchor, and the motto festina lente, which indicated quickness combined with firmness in the execution of a great scheme, were never wholly abandoned by the Aldines until the expiration of their firm in the third generation. 

Manutius wanted to create an octavo book format that gentlemen of leisure could easily transport in a pocket or a satchel, the long, narrow libri portatiles of his 1503 catalogue, forerunners of the modern pocket book.  Manutius' edition of Virgil's Opera (1501) was the first octavo volume that he produced.

In his prefatory letter to Pietro Bembo in the 1514 Virgil, Aldus recorded that he "took the small size, the pocket book formula, from your library, or rather from that of your most kind father". 

Manutius created the italic typeface style, for the exclusive use of which for many years he obtained a patent, though the honour of the invention is more probably due to his typefounder, Francesco Griffo, than to him. His typefaces were all designed and cut by the brilliant Griffo, a punchcutter who created the first roman type cut from study of classical Roman capitals. However, he did not use his italic typeface for emphasis as we do today, but rather for its narrow and compact letterforms, which allowed the printing of pocket-sized books.

He is also believed to have been the first typographer to use a semicolon.  In 1566, his grandson, Aldus Manutius the Younger, produced Orthographiae Ratio, the first book on the principles of punctuation. 

The 1503 Virgil also introduced the use of italic print, the narrowness of which allowed for more economical use of space (more words per page, fewer pages, lower production costs). This publication was also produced in higher-than-normal print runs (1,000 rather than the usual 200 to 500 copies).



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