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Альмерия

Альмерия (Almeria), город и порт в Испании, в Андалусии, на Средиземном море. Административный центр провинции Альмерия. 88,9 тыс. жителей (1965). Виноделие. Маслобойная, кожевенно-обувная, цементная, сероочистительная промышленность; производство музыкальных инструментов. Вывоз с.-х. продукции орошаемого района Вега-де-Гранада, а также серы, железных и свинцовых руд. В А. сохранились руины арабской крепости (8—11 вв., разрушена землетрясением в 1522), собор (1490, перестроен в 16 в. Д. де Силоэ).


АЛЬМЕРИЯ—город в Андалузип иаЮ.-В. Испа­нии, адм. центр провинции Альмерия и порт в глубине залива Альмерия на Средиземном море. Конечный пункт ж.д. 81 тыс. жит. (1948). Неболь­шая промышленность. Вывозятся виноград, апель­сины, трава альфа (эспарто) — грубое волокнистое сырьё, железная руда.


Альмери́я (испAlmería), город на юго-востоке Испании. Население 190013 человек (на 2010 год).).Расположен на юго-востоке испанского побережья Средиземного моря. Площадь 295 км².

В окрестностях А. обнаружено большое количество археологических памятников, в том числе поселение Лос-Мильярес, давшее название одноименной археологической культуре. Ранее, в эпоху неолита здесь существовала альмерийская культура. 13 мая 1937 года вблизи А. подорвался на мине британский эсминец HMS Hunter.


Almería (Spanish pronunciation: [almeˈɾi.a]) is a city in Andalusia, Spain, on the Mediterranean Sea. It is the capital of the province of the same name.

Tradition says that the name Almería stems from the Arabic المرية Al-Mariyya: "The Mirror", comparing it to "The Mirror of the Sea". Nowadays, the most accepted interpretation is that it derives from the Arabic term مرأى Al-Mara'ā, which means "The Watchtower".

The city was founded by Calipha Abd-ar-Rahman III of Cordova in 955 AD. It was to be a principal harbour in his extensive domain to strengthen his Mediterranean defences.

Its Moorish castle, the Alcazaba, is the second largest among the Muslim fortresses of Andalusia, after theAlhambra.

In this period, the port city of Almería reached its historical peak. After the fragmentation of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Almería continued to be ruled by powerful local Muslim Taifa emirs like Jairan, the first independent Emir of Almería and Cartagena, and Almotacin, the poet emir. Both Jairan and Almotacin were fearless warriors, but also sophisticated patrons of the arts. A silk industry, based upon plantings ofmulberry trees in the hot, dry landscape of the province, supported Almería in the 11th century and made its strategic harbour an even more valuable asset.

Contested by the emirs of Granada and Valencia, Almería experienced many sieges, including one especially fierce siege when Christians, called to the Second Crusade by Pope Eugene III, were also encouraged to attack the Muslim 'infidels' on a more familiar coast. On that occasion Alfonso VII, at the head of mixed forces of Catalans, Genoese, Pisans and Franks, led a crusade against the rich city, and Almería was occupied in October 1147.

Within a decade, however, Almería had passed to the control of the puritanical Muslim Almoravid emirs, and not until the late 15th century did it fall permanently into Christian hands. The city surrendered to theCatholic Monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella, on December 26, 1489.

The 16th century was for Almería a century of natural and human catastrophes; for there were at least fourearthquakes, of which the one in 1522 was especially violent, devastating the city. The people who had remained Muslim were expelled from Almería after the War of Las Alpujarras in 1568 and scattered across Spain. Landings and attacks by Berber pirates were also frequent in the 16th century, and continued until the early 18th century. At that time, huge iron mines were discovered and French and British companies set up business in the area, bringing renewed prosperity and returning Almería to a position of relative importance within Spain.

During the Spanish Civil War the city was shelled by the German navy, and the front page headlines of the Diario de Almería, dated June 3, 1937, referred to the press in London and Paris carrying the news of the "criminal bombardment of Almería by German planes". Almería and Málaga were the last Andalusian cities to surrender to Francisco Franco's nationalist forces.

In the second half of the 20th century, Almería witnessed spectacular economic growth due to tourism and intensive agriculture, with crops grown year-round in massive invernaderos – plastic-covered "greenhouses" – for intensive vegetable production.

After Franco's death and popular approval of the new Spanish Constitution, the people of southern Spain were called on to approve an autonomous status for the region in a referendum. The province of Almería voted in favour of it and joined the newly created autonomous region of Andalusia, with 118,186 votes for and 11,092 votes against.

 Main sights

  • The Alcazaba, a medieval fortress that was begun in the 13th century but destroyed by an earthquake in 1522. It includes a triple line of walls, a majestickeep and large gardens. It commands a city quarter with buildings dressed in white colours, of Muslim-age aspect.

  • The Cathedral has a fortress-like appearance due to its towers, merlons and protected paths, created to defend it from Mediterranean pirates. Originally designated as a mosque, it was later converted into a Christian church, before being destroyed in the 1522 earthquake. In the 16th century it was rebuilt in the Renaissance style, whilst keeping some of its defensive features.

  • Renaissance church of Santiago, built in 1533, with tower and portal decorated with reliefs.

  • Chanca, a group of houses carved into rocks.

  • Castle of San Cristobal, now in ruins. It is connected to the Alcazaba by a line of walls.

  • Museum of Almería. Includes findings from Prehistoric, Iberic, Roman, Greek ages and Muslim objects, mostly from the Alcazaba.

  • Paseo de Coches, a modern seaside promenade with gardens and palms. 

Year

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2007

Population

169,027

168,946

170,994

173,338

176,727

177,681

181,702

189,798

Famous natives of Almería include Nicolás Salmerón y Alonso, who in 1873 was the third president of the First Spanish Republic, and several musicians, like the popular folk singer Manolo Escobar, renowned Flamenco guitar player José Tomás "Tomatito" and Grammy Award winner David Bisbal, record-breaking album seller in America and Spain. The motorcyclist Antonio Maeso came from here.

Although administratively annexed to the Autonomous Community of Andalucia, in Southern Spain, some people of the province have shown a clear desire for regional autonomy in different referendums. The insular effect produced by its geographical situation has made several customs, accents and history different from the rest of the Autonomous Region of Andalucia. Almería hosted the Mediterranean Games in 2005. The city has 2 football teams: UD Almería plays in the Segunda División following relegation from La Liga in 2011 and CP Almería plays in a regional fivision. The Irish folk-rock group The Pogues paid tribute to Almeria in "Fiesta," a rollicking Spike Jones-flavored song on the band's third album, If I Should Fall From Grace with God. 

The economy of Almería is mostly based on agriculture, which is located mainly in the western part of the region. Numerous greenhouses produce tons of fruit and vegetables, more than 70% of their product being exported to the rest of Europe.

The province of Almería is home to the largest naturist beach in Europe (also surrounded by naturist accommodations), El Playazo in Vera, despite current attempts to reduce the naturist extent of it.

By land, Almería can be reached by the A-7 Mediterranean Highway, which connects the Mediterranean area with the Spanish A-92 that unites it with the rest of Andalusia.

See also main-article Port of Almeria

By sea, the port of Almería has connections to Melilla, Algeria and Morocco, and also tourist cruises in the Mediterranean. It also has a marina with moorings for pleasure boats. Currently the port of Almería is being expanded with new docks and transformed into a container port to take large-scale international shipping and thereby increase its freight traffic. It normally connects with the following destinations:

  • Trasmediterranea: Ghazaouet (Algeria), Oran (Algeria), Nador (Morocco). and Melilla.

  • Comarit: Nador.

  • Comanav: Nador.

By air, Almería is served by Almería Airport which is the fourth largest in Andalusia and has domestic and international flights, mainly to Amsterdam, Madrid, Barcelona, Melilla, London, Manchester,Birmingham, Brussels, Dublin and Swiss, German and other EU cities.

Due to its arid landscape, numerous spaghetti westerns were filmed in Almería. According to Christopher Frayling, the author of Once Upon A Time in Italy: The Films of Sergio Leone, some of the sets are still there. These sets are located in the desert of Tabernas. The town and region were also used by David Lean in Lawrence of Arabia (1962), John Milius in The Wind and the Lion (1975), and others. One of Almería's most famous natural spots is the Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park. This park is of volcanic origin, and is the largest and most ecologically significant marine-terrestrial space in the European Western Mediterranean Sea. With one of the most beautiful and ecologically rich coasts of the western Mediterranean and an area of 380 square kilometres it is one of Spain’s natural jewels. The Cabo de Gata Natural Park runs through the municipal areas of Níjar, Almería and Carboneras. Its villages, previously dedicated to fishing, have become tourism spots for those interested in nature. One of the greatest attractions of the Cabo de Gata Natural Park is its beaches.

Almería has a Subtropical arid climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) as annual precipitation is below 200mm; it is the only major European city with this type of climate. The average annual temperature is above 19 °C (66 °F).

Almería has hot summers and warm winters; it has one of the sunniest, warmest and driest climates in Europe. It experiences the warmest winters of any European city with a population over 100,000, and hot and dry summers with no precipitation between June and September.

Almería enjoys about 3000 hours of sunshine annually with over 320 sunny days a year on average (6 hours of sunshine in January and 12 in July). The city has an average annual temperature of about19 °C (66 °F) and on average only 26 days with precipitation annually.

During the winter, daily maximum temperatures tend to stay around 18 °C (64 °F). At night, the temperature rarely drops below 8 °C (46 °F). Precipitation even during the wettest months is rare, this falls in short showers or thunderstorms.

During the warmest months - July and August, the sky is clear and sunny and no rainfall occurs. The typical daily temperatures are around 33 °C (91 °F) during the heat of the day. However, this is often influenced by the Levante wind, a hot dry easterly wind that blows from the interior desert that makes temperatures soar to 38 °C (100 °F) or higher. These can also carry dust or sand. The minimum temperatures stay around 24 °C (75 °F) during July and August. Heatwaves in Almería are quite common; Almería reached up to 43 °C (109 °F) in August 2011.

Sister cities:

  •  Cochabamba, Bolivia

  •  Melilla, Spain

  •  Navojoa, Mexico


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