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Амасра

Амасра (до 1460 г. Амастрида; греч. Ἄμαστρις; род. п. Ἀμάστριδος; тур. Amasra), город на западе черноморского побережья Турции. Основан во II тыс. до н. э. на побережье малозаийской области Пафлагония. Население 7,0 тыс. чел (2009 г., оценка).

Во времена ранней античности подвергся эллинизации. Упоминается по поэме Гомера Илиада под названием Сезам или Сесам (Σήσαμος). В 302 г. до н. э его избрала своей резиденцией вдова правителя Пафлагонии Лисимаха — персидская принцесса Амастрида, которая переехала сюда из соседнего г. Гераклея. В честь неё Сезам получил новое название — Амастрида, сохраняющееся до сих пор в искажённом виде — А. Во времена классической античности Амастрида представляла собой большой, изящно отстроенный город, имевший тоговую бухту и два укреплённых острова, ныне известные как Бююк-ада (Большой) и Тавшан-ада(Кроличий). В окрестностях Амастриды, особенно около Китора, некогда росло много красивых буковых деревьев. Со временем город перешёл под власть Римской (с 66 г. до н. э.) и Византийской империй (395).

В 860 г. город разграбили русы, но он был вскоре восстановлен. В 1204 г., когда впервые пал Константинополь, Гераклея и Амастрида были двумя основными городами Пафлагонии, греческое население которой признало власть Трапезундской империи. В ходе трапезундско-никейского конфликта в 1206—1210 гг., Никейской империи удалось включить Пафлагонию в свой состав и получить выход к Чёрному морю. Но уже в начале ХIV века город со всех сторон окружилитурки-османы. Крепость Амастриды взяла под свой контроль Генуэзская республика, подвозившая запасы с моря. Но в 1460 г. генуэзцы были выбиты из крепости. После этого византийская церковь IХ века была превращена в мечеть, а затем в музей в 1930 г. Город запустел и долгое время был практически безлюден, хотя остатки греческого населения проживали в его окрестностях до депортации 1923 года.


Amasra (pop. 7000; from Greek Amastris Ἄμαστρις, gen. Ἀμάστριδος) is a small Black Sea port town in the Bartın Province, Turkey. The town is today much appreciated for its beaches and natural setting, which has made tourism the most important activity for its inhabitants. The mayor is Emin Timur (CHP).

Amasra has two islands: the bigger one is called Büyük ada (Great Island) while the smaller one is called Tavşan adası (Rabbit Island).

Situated in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, the original city seems to have been called Sesamus (Greek: Σήσαμος), and it is mentioned byHomer  in conjunction with Cytorus. Stephanus  says that it was originally called Cromna; but in another place,  where he repeats the statement, he adds, as it is said; but some say that Cromna is a small place in the territory of Amastris, which is the true account. The place derived its name Amastris from Amastris, the niece of the last Persian king Darius III, who was the wife of Dionysius, tyrant of Heraclea, and after his death the wife ofLysimachus. Four small Ionian colonies, Sesamus, Cytorus, Cromna, also mentioned in the Iliad,  and Tium, were combined by Amastris, after her separation from Lysimachus, to form the new community of Amastris, placed on a small river of the same name and occupying a peninsula. Tium, says Strabo, soon detached itself from the community, but the rest kept together, and Sesamus was the acropolis of Amastris. From this it appears that Amastris was really a confederation or union of three places, and that Sesamus was the name of the city on the peninsula. This may explain the fact that Mela mentions Sesamus and Cromna as cities of Paphlagonia, and does not mention Amastris. 

The territory of Amastris produced a great quantity of boxwood, which grew on Mount Cytorus. Its tyrant Eumenes presented the city of Amastris toAriobarzanes of Pontus in c. 265–260 BC rather than submit it to domination by Heraclea, and it remained in the Pontic kingdom until its capture byLucius Lucullus in 70 BC in the second Mithridatic War.  The younger Pliny, when he was governor of Bithynia and Pontus, describes Amastris, in a letter to Trajan,  as a handsome city, with a very long open place (platea), on one side of which extended what was called a river, but in fact was a filthy, pestilent, open drain. Pliny obtained the emperor's permission to cover over this sewer. On a coin of the time of Trajan, Amastris has the title Metropolis. It continued to be a town of some note to the seventh century of our era.

The city was not abandoned in Byzantine Era, when the acropolis was transformed into a fortress and the still surviving church was built. It was sacked by the Rus during the First Russo-Byzantine War in the 830s. But it was in 1261 that Amastris regained part of its former importance; in that year the town was taken by the Italian city-state of Genoa in its bid to obtain sole control of the Black Sea trade. Genoese domination ended in 1460 when the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II conquered the whole Anatolian shores of the Black Sea.

Features

With its rich architectural heritage, Amasra is a member of the Norwich-based European Association of Historic Towns and Regions. 

Amasra Castle was built during the Roman period. The walls of the castle were built by the Byzantines. The front walls and gates were built by the Genoese in the 14th and 15th centuries. Though located on a narrow peninsula, a tunnel under the castle leads to a fresh water pool.

 Church Mosque

Built as a Byzantine church in the 9th century AD. The church is a small chapel and its narthex section consists of three parts. After Fatih Sultan Mehmet conquered Amasra in 1460, it was converted to a mosque. The church mosque was closed to prayer in 1930.

In 2009 a coal fired power station of 2640 MWe (or 1200MWe) was proposed. It will have a super critical boiler, will utilise a nearby bituminous coal mine and is to be seawater cooled. An application has been made to acquire 49-year long-term concession rights for exploitation of local bituminous proven coal reserves of approximately 573 million metric tons. Concerns have been raised about the effect on air quality, marine ecology   and ash.

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