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Амасья

Амасья (турAmasya, армԱմասիա, гречἈμάσεια), город и район в северной Турции, центр провинции (ила) Амасья. Население — 74 тыс. жителей (2000). Высота над уровнем моря — 411 м.

А. расположена в долине реки Ешиль-Ирмак; этим обуславливается мягкий климат. В окрестностях А. широкое распространение получили выращивание яблок.

С 281 года до н. э. по 26 год до н. э. А. — столица Понтийского царства. В 63 году до н. э. город и царство завоёвывает Римская империя. 

А. была захвачена римлянином Лукуллом в 70 г. до н. э.; постепенно Понтийское царство вместе с Вифинией было преобразовано в новую римскую провинцию — Вифиния и Понт. К этому времени Амасья стала процветающим городом, домом мыслителей, поэтов и писателей. Один из них, Страбон, оставил полное описание А. в I веке до н. э.

После разделения Римской империи императором Диоклетианом город стал частью Восточной Римской империи (Византийской империи). В это время в городе большинство населения составили греки. 

После поражения византийской армии при Манцикерте в 1071 году находившаяся в пределах Византии 7 веков Малая Азия начинает постепенно терять свой христианский и греческий характер. Начинается процесс исламизации и туркизации Малой Азии. Турки продвигались вглубь полуострова очень быстро и в 1075 году турецкий эмир Данышмендид захватил А. и сделал её столицей своего государства, которое существовало в Малой Азии более 100 лет.

Султан Иконийского султана, Кылыч Арслан, захватил город и присоединил его к своим владениям. Город стал центром Исламской культуры. Школы, мечети и другая архитектура этого периода сохранились до сих пор.

Периодически город переходил из рук турок в руки византийцев в XII веке, во время войн Византии и Иконийского султаната. Окончательно город стал турецким лишь только в начале XIII века.

В конце XIV века город покоряет османский султан Баязид I. А. становится важным городом, здесь проводится обучение детей султана.

Население А. во времена османского правления очень отличалось от большинства других городов в Османской империи: для того, чтобы как следует обучить будущего султана требовалось подробно ознакомить его с большинством народов империи. Каждый народ империи был представлен в А. в специфических деревнях — понтийской (греческой) деревни, армянской деревни, боснийской деревни, татарской деревни, турецкой деревни, арабской деревни, курдской деревни и т. д.

29 мая 1555 года здесь после 40-летней войны между Османской империей и сефевидской Персией был подписан мирный договор о разделе сфер влияния в Закавказье: Западная Грузия (Имеретия, Мингрелия, Гурия и западная часть княжества Самцхе-Саатабаго) и 3ападная Армения отошли туркам, а Восточная Грузия (Картли, Кахети и восточная часть Самцхе-Саатабаго) и Восточная Армения — Персии.

Известные уроженцы:

  • Феодор Тирон христианский святой


Amasya, the Amaseia of antiquity, is the capital of the administrative district of Amasya Province in northern Turkey. The population of the province is 334,786 and the population of the city is 99 905. The mayor is Cafer Özdemir (AKP).

Amasya stands in the mountains above the Black Sea coast, in a narrow valley along the banks of the Yeşilırmak River. Although near the Black Sea, this area is high above the coast and has an inland climate, well-suited to growing apples, for which the province of Amasya is famed.

In antiquity, Amaseia (Αμάσεια) was a fortified city high on the cliffs above the river. It has a long history as provincial capital, a wealthy city producing kings and princes, artists, scientists, poets and thinkers, from the kings of Pontus, through Strabo the geographer, to many generations of the Ottoman imperial dynasty, and up to being the location of an important moment in the life of Ataturk. With its Ottoman period wooden houses and the tombs of the Pontus kings carved into the cliffs overhead, Amasya is attractive to visitors. 

According to Strabo the name Αμάσεια comes from Amasis, the queen of the Amazons, who were said to have lived here. The name has changed little throughout history, Αμάσεια, Amaseia, Amassia and Amasia all being found in ancient Greek and Roman coinage, and continuing to be used through modern times by Greeks. In Armenian, it is written Armenian: Ամասիա, in Ottoman "أماصيا", and in modern Turkish "Amasya", all representing the same sound. 

Situated between the Black Sea and inner Anatolia in a region of fertile plains irrigated by the Tersakan, Çekerek and Yeşilırmak rivers, Amasya lies in a naturally beautiful narrow river valley, bounded by almost vertical cliffs and high peaks of the Canik and Pontus mountains.

Five bridges cross the river, and most of the town lies on the southern bank, spread along the river. The climb up to the higher ground is very steep, making the valley walls uninhabitable. The town is therefore shaped like a letter 'v' as it follows a sharp bend in the river. 

Amasya features a Continental Mediterranean climate with hot summers and cold, rainy winters.

Its location in this steep valley makes the city a mountain stronghold, easy to defend, and thus Amasya has had a long and prominent history. 

Archaeological research shows that Amasya was first settled in 5500 BC  by the Hittites and subsequently by Phrygians, Cimmerians, Lydians,Persians, Armenians. 

By 183 BC the city was settled by Hellenistic people, eventually becoming the capital of the kings of Pontus from 333 BC to 26 BC. Today there are prominent ruins including the royal tombs of Pontus in the rocks above the riverbank in the centre of the city. 

Amaseia was captured by the Roman Lucullus in 70 BC from Armenia and was quickly made a free city and administrative center of his new province ofBithynia and Pontus by Pompey. By this time Amaseia was a thriving city, the home of thinkers, writers and poets, and one of them, Strabo, left a full description of Amaseia as it was between 60 BC and 19 AD. Around 2 or 3 BC, it was incorporated into the Roman province of Galatia, in the district of Pontus Galaticus. Around the year 112, the emperor Trajan designated it a part of the province of Cappadocia. Later in the 2nd century it gained the titles 'metropolis' and 'first city'. After the division of the Roman Empire by emperor Diocletian the city became part of the East Roman Empire (the Byzantine Empire). At this time it had a predominantly Greek-speaking population. 

In 1075 following 700 years of Byzantine rule Amasya was conquered by the Turkmen Danishmend emirs. It became their capital until it was annexed by theSeljuk ruler Kiliç Arslan II. Under the Seljuks and the Ilkhan the city became a centre of Islamic culture. Schools, mosques, tombs and other architecture of this period still remain. 

After being incorporated into the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Bayezid I Amasya grew in importance as a centre of learning; the children of the Ottoman rulers being sent here for their education. As part of their preparation for future rule they were given the position and responsibility of governor of Amasya. Future sultans from Beyazid I in the late 14th century through to Murat III in the 16th were schooled here and held the position of governor in their youth.

The population of Amasya at this time was very different from that of most other cities in the Ottoman Empire; as it was part of their the training for the future sultans to learn about every nation of the Empire. Every millet of the Empire was represented in Amasya in a particular village—such as a pontic village, an Armenian village, a Bosnian village, a Tatar village, a Turkish village, an Arab village, a Kurdish village, etc. (see: 1927 Population count data by DİE.) 

In 1919 Amasya was the location of the final planning meetings held by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk for the building of a Turkish army to establish the Turkish republic following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War. It was here that Mustafa Kemal made the announcement of the Turkish War of Independence in the Amasya Circular. 

The Greeks of Amasya were replaced by Turks from Greece in the population exchange at the founding of the Turkish Republic. 

Amaseia became the seat of a Christian bishop and archbishop in Roman times; there is a list of bishops from the third century.  The bishopric eventually lapsed, probably, like so many others, after the Turkish conquest of Anatolia. In 1687 the title of Archbishop of Amaseia was conferred as a titular distinction on Ferdinando d'Adda, the papal representative to King James II of England. The Catholic titular bishopric has been conferred a dozen times since.  Amasia remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic church.[7]

The province of Amasya is known for producing high-quality, small but well-flavoured apples. Other crops include tobacco and poppy seeds. Other economic activities in the region include mining, textiles and cement manufacture, but Amasya is not a very wealthy city. It is however an attractive, well-preserved town, especially when sitting by the river, which has a particular mystique on a winter evening when fog fılls the valley. Tourists (and also soldiers from the local base) contribute valuable income to the shopkeepers of the city. The railway line from Sivas to Samsun runs through Amasya, and there is an attractive Ottoman period railway station.

There is some nightlife, mainly bars and cafes for students, and some basic restaurants. The cuisine includes the local specialty toyga çorbası, a soup containing yoghurt, drunk hot or cold. Other delights include pastries with poppy seeds and tea by the riverbank.

Main sights:

  • On the rock of Harşena above the town is the terraced site of the royal palace and the tombs of the kings of Pontus(illuminated at night) which, although not kept in the best condition, are an impressive sight from the town.

  • Harsene Kalesi – A fortification, mentioned by Strabo and largely rebuilt in medieval times also lies in ruins on a rocky outcrop above the town. And in the district of Nerkis lies some remains of another castle, Enderun Kalesi.

  • The town itself has many historically and architecturally valuable buildings, including the Ferhat aqueduct, the 13th century Seljuk Burmali Mosque, the 14th century Ilkhan Bimarhane Mental Hospital with lovely reliefs around its portal, the tomb of 15th century scholar Pir Ilyas and the 15th century mosque of Yildirim Beyazit. Unfortunately, Amasya is vulnerable to earthquakes which have damaged many monuments (most recently in 1939).

  • There are a number of well-preserved traditional Ottoman Turkish mansions, some of the best examples of Turkish domestic architecture. The 19th century Hazeranlar Konağı has been carefully restored and includes a small art gallery and ethnographical museum. Other wooden houses are being restored as hotels and guest houses.

  • The Archaeological Museum of Amasya has a large and interesting collection, of artefacts from many eras of antiquity, including the mummies of the Ilkhanli rulers of Amasya.

  • A number of tombs of Muslim saints, yatır, said to emanate healing powers. The sick and dying come to breathe the air and drink the waters of nearby springs.

  • Lake Borabay (65 km northeast of Amasya in the district of Taşova) is a crater lake with an impressive view and fresh air. It is a perfect area for fishing (especially trout), picnicking and sports. Other excursion sites from Amasya include Yedikir reservoir and Omarca National Park.

Notable natives

  • Strabo, ancient geographer and historian (died in 23 AD)

  • Selim I, Ottoman sultan

  • Uğur Dağdelen, footballer

  • Mahmut Demir, World, Olympic and European champion sports wrestler

  • Serkan Erdoğan, basketball player

  • Hamit Kaplan, World and Olympic champion sports wrestler

  • Adem Ören, basketball player

  • Erdem Türetken, basketball player

  • Ahmet Yıldırım, footballer

In its Turkish version, this classic tale of oriental folklore is held to have taken place in Amasya. The nearby mountain Ferhat is named for Farhad (Turkish spelling Ferhat), the hero of the legend, who for love of the princess Shirin (Turkish spelling Şirin) tried to win her father's favour and permission by tunnelling through the mountain to bring spring water to his palace. Sadly, while he was working he was sent the false information that Shirin had died; upon which he threw himself onto the rocks in his grief. And his beloved princess died soon after. The story has since become a play by Nazim Hikmet, a novel by Talip Apaydın, and an opera by Arif Melikov.

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