Королевский холм Амбохиманга, исторический памятник, археологические раскопки на Мадагаскаре, расположенные в провинции Антананариву, объект Всемирного наследия ЮНЕСКО. Является важным символом самоидентификации современных малагасийцев и содержит объекты, связанные с захоронениями правителей Мадагаскара. Королевский холм являлся местом религиозного поклонения средневековых малагасийцев и имел важное значение в культурной и общественной жизни Мадагаскара на протяжении пятисот лет до появления европейцев. Комплекс А. содержит археологический материал, раскрывающий социальную и политическую культуру Мадагаскара, начиная с XV века.
The Royal Hill of Ambohimanga is a site of cultural and historical significance located approximately 24 kilometers to the east of the capital city ofAntananarivo in Madagascar. The site consists of a walled historic village including residences and burial sites of several key members of the royalty of Imerina, the ethnic community that rose to power in the 19th century and united much of the island nation of Madagascar under its administrative authority. The site, one of the twelve sacred hills of Imerina, is associated with strong feelings of national identity and has maintained its spiritual and sacred character both in ritual practice and the popular imagination for the past 500 years. It remains a place of worship to which pilgrims come fromMadagascar and elsewhere. The compound was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2001.
In 1710, Merina ruler Andriamasinavalona divided his kingdom, leaving Ambohimanga (the Blue Hill) to one of his four sons, who in turn made it his capital. It later came into the hands of Prince Andrianampoinimerina in 1787 and even after he had become King and begun his grand project to unite the Merina kingdom under his rule from his new capital in Antananarivo, he still often stayed in the triangular dark-stained wooden palace built for him here. Ambohimanga was henceforth considered one of the sacred royal hills of Imerina (the Merina kingdom) and was known as a "forbidden city" until 1897 when the French colonial administration transferred all the relics and significant belongings of the royal family to Antananarivo to break the spirit of resistance and ethnic identity inspired by these symbols.
The village of Ambohimanga features seven gates. The largest and principal gate is also the most well-preserved and is known as Ambatomitsangana (standing stone). Every morning and evening, a team of twenty soldiers would work together to roll into place an enormous stone disk, 40.5 meters in diameter and 30 cm thick, weighing about 12 tons, to open or seal off the doorway. This form of "gate" (vavahady in the Malagasy language) was typical of most walled villages of Imerina at the time and protected the villagers from marauders. The wall around the village was itself constructed in 1847 on the orders of Queen Ranavalona I and features an ancient mortaring technique using lime and egg whites.
Mahandrihono The compound features a building that served as home and headquarters for King Andrianampoinimerina before moving his capital to Antananarivo. The simple wooden building is constructed in the traditional Malagasy architectural style of the aristocracy of Imerina: the walls are made of solid rosewood and incline to meet in the middle, forming a peaked roof that is supported by 10-meter central rosewood pillar, much like the one that had originally supported the roof of the Rova Manjakamiadana of Antananarivo before it burned down in 1995. A white marble plaque here is inscribed with the word mahandrihono meaning "he who knows how to wait." In this hut can still be found a number of items belonging to this great king of Madagascar, including weapons, drums, talismans and the enormous raised bed where he received each of his twelve wives one after another. The site is highly sacred and many pilgrims come here to connect with the spirit of Andrianampoinimerina and those of his ancestors.
Nanjaka An earlier fortress was built within this complex, but the building was destroyed when powder kegs stored nearby exploded on the day of Queen Ranavalona I's burial.
The Two Pavilions of Queen Ranavalona II The two ornate palace buildings constructed within the compound were built of rosewood in 1871. The first and larger of the two features a room for receiving visitors and a large salon on the ground floor, and the bedroom of Queen Ranavalona II on the second floor. The original European furnishings have been preserved, and the many gifts given by foreign dignitaries to the Queen are on display here. The Queen's bedroom is considered a sacred place and many visitors come here in pilgrimage to pray to her spirit.
The second, smaller pavilion is known as the Trano Fitaratra (house of glass) and was where the Queen would gather her Ministers for counsel. The large windows on all four sides of the building provide a stunning view of the countryside below, as well as enabling the Queen to take stock of the security of her surroundings, and are made of glass imported by an Englishman named Parrett in 1862.
Amparihy Two large basins have been carved from the stone foundation of the compound. One was a bath for Andrianampoinimerina, and the other was a swimming pool for Ranavalona I. Water was taken from the sacred lake of Amparihy at the north of the village and was replaced weekly.
Royal edicts and public judgments were handed down in the small courtyard of Ambarangotina at the base of the hill leading to the Rova. The esplanade of Fidasiana above it, at the foot of the Rova, was the location of larger gatherings and royal festivals.