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Амеланд

Амеланд (фризIt Amelân), остров в Нидерландах, входящий в группу Фризских островов. Расположен между островами Терсхеллинг и Схирмонниког. Административно остров является общиной, входящей в состав провинции Фрисландия.

Координаты: 53°27′01″ с. ш. 5°45′13″ в. д. (G) (O)

Площадь: 60,02 км² (остальная территория, формально входящая в состав общины — это водная поверхность). Остров 22 километра в длину, наибольшая ширина составляет 5 км.

Население: 3513 человек (2005).

На острове существует несколько поселков: Холлюм, Баллюм, Нес, Бюрен.

Остров имеет дюнное происхождение и является естественным барьером между Северным и Ваттовым морями. Остров находится в приливно-отливной зоне Северного моря. Перепад уровня воды составляет от 2 до 3 метров. За счёт отливов и небольшой глубины залива Ваддензе обнажаются большие площади ваттов.

Летом большое количество голландцев приезжают отдыхать в островные деревни.

На остров можно попасть на пароме из местечка Холверд на материке.


Ameland ( pronunciation (help·info), West Frisian: It Amelân) is a municipality and one of the West Frisian Islands off the north coast of theNetherlands. It consists mostly of sand dunes. It is the third major island of the West Frisians. It neighbours islands Terschelling to the West andSchiermonnikoog to the East. This includes the small Engelsmanplaat and Rif islands to the East.

Ameland is, counted from the west, the fourth inhabited Dutch Wadden island and belongs to the Friesland/Fryslan province. The whole island falls under one municipality, which carries the same name. The Wadden islands form the border between the North sea and the Wadden sea which lies on the south side of the island file. As of 31 December 2008, the municipality of Ameland had 3,466 inhabitants (source: CBS). The inhabitants are calledAmelanders.

The island has four villages, and one small part-village.

In former days, there were two other villages: Oerd and Sier, but these were drowned and now lie in the sea. The name of these villages live on in MS Oerd and MS Sier, which are the names of the ferries to the island. From west to east:

  • Hollum, the most populated village, located at the West Coast, home to the island's lighthouse

  • Ballum, smallest village, location of the island's airfield, Ameland Airport

  • Nes, the second largest but the main village of the island, a vibrant tourist village with many hotels, also home to the ferry services from Holwerdmainland

  • Buren located at the centre of the island, includes Ameland's beach

First mentioned as Ambla in the 8th century, it paid tribute to the county of Holland until in 1424 its lord Ritske Jelmera declared it a 'free lordship' (vrijheerschap).

Although Holland, Friesland and the Holy Roman Emperor contested this quasi-independent status, it remained a free lordship until the ruling family, Cammingha, died out in 1708. After that, the Frisian stadtholder Johan Willem Friso of Orange-Nassau became lord of Ameland and after him, his son the stadtholder of all the Netherlands William IV of Orange and his grandson William V of Orange.

Only in the constitution of 1813 was the island finally integrated into the Netherlands (into the province of Friesland). The kings and queens of the Netherlands still maintain the title Vrijheer van Ameland today.

In 1871 and 1872, a dike was built between Ameland and the mainland by a society for the reclamation of Frisian land from the sea. The dike ran from Holwerd to Bueren and was 8.7 km (5 mi). long. The province and the Dutch realm each paid 200,000 guilders. In the end, it was unsuccessful; the dike did not prove to be durable and in 1882, after heavy storms in the winter, repair and maintenance of the dam were stopped. The dike can still be partially seen at low tide. The dam at Holwerd is the beginning of this dike.

In 1940 German troops were ferried to the island and within hours Ameland was under the control of the German Army. Because of its limited military value the Allies never invaded Ameland. The German forces on the island did not surrender until June 2, 1945, almost a full month after the defeat of Nazi Germany. 

Like all West and East Frisian Islands, Ameland is a unique piece of nature. The profusion of different plants on the island is caused by the immense variety of landscapes. One of the scenic areas is the Oerd, a large complex of dunes which is still expanding by the year. Because of the differing landscapes and types of flora, over 60 different species of birds are sitting there every year. At the eastern part of the Oerd lays a beach plain called the Hon. Besides dunes and beaches, Ameland has some woods, like the Nesser bos ("Wood of Nes"). This wood belongs to Nes, but a local legend tells a different story about the owner of this property. Every now and then, the owner according to the legend is pointed out in mysterious ways. 

Most travelers reach the island by ferry from Holwerd in the mainland of Friesland, but there is also an Airport near Ballum (Ameland Airport). A bus service connects the ferries from Hollum/Ballum (route 130) and Buren/Nes (route 132). When the sea from Friesland to Ameland is low tide, people can just walk across it, and travel between the sea.

The following people were born on Ameland:

  • Hannes de Boer (1899–1982), long jumper

  • Jan Bruin (1969), footballer

  • Willem Cornelis de Groot (1853–1939), architect

  • Johannes cardinal de Jong (1885–1955), archbishop of Utrecht

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