Анантапур (город, Андхра-Прадеш)
Анантапур (англ. Anantapur) — город в индийском штате Андхра-Прадеш. Административный центр округа Анантапур. Средняя высота над уровнем моря — 334 метра. По данным всеиндийской переписи 2001 года, в городе проживало 220 951 человек, из которых мужчины составляли 51 %, женщины — соответственно 49 %. Уровень грамотности взрослого населения составлял 69 % (при общеиндийском показателе 59,5 %). 10 % населения было моложе 6 лет.
Anantapur (Telugu: అనంతపురం, Urdu: اننت پور,(pronunciation (help·info)) is a city and a municipal corporation in Anantapur district in the state ofAndhra Pradesh, India. It is located 356 kilometres (221 mi) south of state capital, Hyderabad and is the headquarters of the Anantapur District. Anantapur was headquarters of "Datta Mandalam" (Rayalaseema and Bellary districts) in 1799 and Sir Thomas Manro was the first collector for ceded districts. Anantapur was an important place for the British Indian Army in the Second World War. Current JNTU-CEA campus, once a bunker for the British artillery; remains can be found on the campus location.
Anantapur has a semi-arid climate, with hot and dry conditions for most of the year. Summers start in late February, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 37 °C (99 °F) range. Anantapur does get pre-monsoon showers starting as early as March, mainly through north easterly winds blowing in from Kerala. The monsoon arrives in September and lasts until early November with about 250 mm (9.8 in) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February; with little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range, this is the best time to visit Anantapur. Total annual rainfall is about 22 in (560 mm).
As of 2006 India census, Anantapur has a population of 516,359 (agglomeration 620,359) in City Corporation and has around 6.5 Lakhs along withRaptadu Tapovanam Sk University and other extensions. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Anantapur has an average literacy rate of 69%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with 56% of the males and 44% of females literate. Ten percent of the population is under 6 years of age. Telugu, Urdu, Kannada and English are the predominant languages of this city.
Anantapur offers some vivid glimpses of the prehistoric past. It is generally held that the place got its name from 'Anantasagaram', a big tank, which means "Endless Ocean". The villages of Ananthasagaram and Bukkarayasamudram were constructed by Chilkkavodeya, the minister of Bukka-I, aVijayanagar ruler. Some authorities assert that Ananthasagaram was named after Bukka's queen, while some contend that it must have been known after Anantarasa Chikkavodeya himself, as Bukka had no queen by that name.
Anantapur is familiarly known as "Hande Anantapuram", after the Hande family who ruled Anantapur and Bukkarayapatnam. The Hande family belonged to the Lingayath Balija Naidu Community. Anantapur and a few other places were gifted by the Vijayanagar rulers to famous warrior Hande Hanumappa Naidu of the Hande family.
The place subsequently came under the Qutub, Shaks, Saiyads Mughals and the Nawabs of Cuddapah, although the Hande chiefs continued to rule as their subordinates. It was occupied by the Palergar of Bellary during the time of Hunde Ramappa Naidu but was eventually won back by his son, Siddappa. Morari Rao Ghorpade attacked Anantapur in 1757. Though the army resisted for some time, Siddappa ultimately bought off the enemy for Rs.50,000.
It then came into the possession of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Tipu hanged all the male members of the Siddappa naidu of Hunde family except Siddappa Naiduwho escaped from his confinement at Srirangapatnam. After Tipu's death, it was once again taken back by Siddappa Naidu. Siddappa Naidu submitted himself to Nizam because of the treaty of 1799, who took the total control of the area. He was later pensioned off when British occupied the territory.
Anantapur is an important education centre.
Government Arts College (affectionately known as The Grand Old Lady of Rayalaseema) Anantapuram, established in the year 1916. The college boasts a long list of high profile alumni including India’s former presidents, Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan and Dr. Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy; Former Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh like Sri Damodaram Sajeevaiah and Kotla Vijayabhaskar Reddy; and other persons like Dr U.R. Rao, former Chairman, ISRO and Y. Venugopala Reddy, the present Governor of Reserve Bank of India, hail from the same college.
Anantapur has many sports facilities and has played host to Irani Cup in 1963-64 when Rest of India scored their lowest total of 83 against the then Ranji trophy winners Bombay, played at the Sanjeeva Reddy stadium. Several Ranji trophy matches and other regional tournaments for basketball, badminton, etc. have been hosted in Anantapur. Rafael Nadal, the Spanish tennis star is setting up the Nadal Tennis School (NTS), the first of its kind in the world, at the Anantapur Sports Village (ASV).
The Anantapur Sports Village (ASV), located alongside the National Highway 7, has all the makings of a major sports destination. The Anantapur Cricket Ground, no doubt, enjoys the pride of place in the 40-acre (160,000 m2) complex, but the other facilities here do not lag behind either. That the complex is managed by the Rural Development Trust (RDT), an NGO, is commendable, but where it scores is in the maintenance. Unlike other infrastructure, say in Hyderabad or Pune where they lie mostly unused, there’s activity here, almost right through the year.