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Practical Norwegian Grammar /Практическая грамматика норвежского языка (на английском)

Practical Norwegian Grammar /Практическая грамматика норвежского языка (на английском)


Год выпуска: 1986
Автор: Ase-Berit & Rolf Strandskogen
Перевод с норвежского и адаптация: Barbara White
Жанр: Учебное пособие
Издательство: Oris Forlag
ISBN: 82-7362-002-6
Формат: PDF
Качество: Отсканированные страницы (Отсканировано немного кривовато, но текст виден хорошо, качество приемлемое)
Язык курса: английский
Количество страниц: 202
Practical Norwegian Grammar is an easy-to-use guide to correct usage in modern everyday Norwegian. The numerous examples illustrating grammatical problems which regulary cause difficulty to foreign learners help the reader to apply the grammatical rules in practice.
Throughout the book special attention has been paid to constructions which have proved difficult for learners of Norwegian.


Contents

Preface 9
I Parts of speech 11
verbs 12
infinitive 12
imperative 15
subjunctive 17
indicative 17
Active 17
Passive 18
Present 18
Past (Imperfect) 20
Perfect 21
Pluperfect 22
Future 23
Future Perfect 26
Conditional 27
Conditional Perfect 27
The Continuous Aspect 27
SEQUENCE OF tenses 28
MODAL AUXILIARIES 29
Modal auxiliaries without a main verb 32
TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS 33
Conjugation of some intransitive and transitive verbs 34
SEPARABLE AND INSEPARABLE COMPOUND VERBS 35
PRESENT PARTICIPLE 37
VERBS ENDING IN -S 38
CONJUGATIONS 40
articles 45
FORM i 45
Articles in relation to nouns 45
Articles in relation to adjectives 46
FUNCTION 47
Simple/compound definite 47
Rules for use of the articles 50
NOUNS 57
GENDER 57
Masculine 57
Feminine 58
Neuter 58
DECLENSIONS 59
Masculine nouns 59
Feminine nouns 61
Neuter nouns 62
MORE ABOUT SINGULAR AND PLURAL 64
DEFINITE OR INDEFINITE FORM 64
CASE 65
Nominative 65
Genitive 65
Dative 65
COMPOUND NOUNS 67
Noun + Noun 67
Adjective + Noun 68
Verb + Noun 69
Preposition + Noun 69
Adverb + Noun 69
ADJECTIVES 70
DECLENSIONS 70
Regular declension 70
Irregular forms 71
«Liten» 75
«Annen» and «egen» 75
«Mange» and «mye» 77
The indefinite form of the adjective 77
The definite form of the adjective 78
Successive adjectives 79
The past participle used as an adjective 79
Other adjectives ending in -et 80
Comparison of adjectives #0
Concord 84
ADVERBS W)
FORMS 87
Comparison of adverbs 8fl
ADVERBS OF DEGREE 90
«Vcldig» - «mye» - «cnda» - «aller» 90
ADVERBS OF PLACE 90
Stative and dynamic pairs 91
Pairs with the same meanings 91
ADVERBS OF MANNER 92
«Slik/sänn-> - «slikl/sänt» 92
«Hvordan» 92
ADVERBS OF MODIFICATION 92
«Da», «nok», «jo», «vcl», «na», «sikkert» 93
«Heller» 94
ADVERBS OF TIME 95
«Ennä» - «enda» 95
«Da» — «sä» 95
«Noen gang» - «Noen ganger» 96
«Sjeldcn» - «sjeldcnt» 97
«F0rst» 97
ADVERBIAL PHRASES OF TIME 97
«I gär» - «i dag» - «i morgen» 97
«Om sommercn/vinteren» 98
«Om dage n/n alten» 99
«I är» - «i äret» 99
Duration of time 99
Holidays 100
«How long» 101
During 101
PRONOUNS 102
PERSONAL PRONOUNS 104
Subject form UM
Subject or object form 104
Indefinite use - «du», «de» 104
Neutral forms - «den», «det» 105
Repetition of subject form 105
Object form in exclamations 105
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS LOS
In reflexive verbs 105
Comparison with object form of personal pronouns 106
Reflexive/non-reflexive verbs 106
Infinitives after reflexive pronouns 107
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 107
Position of possessives 108
Genitive 109
Reflexive possessive pronouns 109
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 112
Form 112
Obligatory neuter singular form 113
Definite article or demonstrative pronoun? 113
Compound/Simple definite 114
Special note on demonstrative pronouns 114
Other demonstrative pronouns 115
«Slik» - «slikt» — «slike» 115
«Samme» 115
«Selv/sj0l(v)» 115
«Begge» 116
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 117
«Hvem» 118
«Hva» 118
«Hvilkcn» - «hvilkei» - «hvilke» , 118
«Hva for en/et/noc/noen» 118
RELATIVE PRONOUNS 120
«Som» 120
As subject in relative clauses 121
Special uses of «som» 122
Literary forms 123
Cleft sentences 123
«Som» in relation to time and place 124
RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS 125
Each other 125
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 125
One 125
Assertive pronouns - noen/noe 126
annen/annet/andre 127
mange/myc 127
Negative pronouns - no one/nothing 127
Universal pronouns - all/cveryone/everything 129
each/every 131
Impersonal pronoun 132
CONJUNCTIONS ........................................ 135
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS ..................... 135
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS .................... 135
«At» ................................................. 136
«Om» ................................................ 137
Conjunctions of time ..................................... 138
«Da» - «nar» .......................................... '38
«Etter at» - «etter» - *etterpa» .......................... 139
«F0r» - «foran» - -<tidligerc» ............................139
Conjunctions of cause .................................... '41J
«Fordi» - «for*> ........................................ 'Tt
«Fordi» - «derfor» ..................................... '40
Conjunctions of condition ................................. '4'
«Uten at» - «uten a» ................................... 142
Conjunctions of concession ................................ 143
Conjunctions of purpose .................................. 143
Conjunctions of result .................................... M*
«s&»..................................................144
Conjunctions of comparison ............................... '45
INTERJECTIONS ....................................... 146
NUMERALS ............................................ 147
CARDINALS/ORDINALS ............................... '47
Noies on «cn/en/el/ett» ................................... 14**
Second ................................................. 148
Alternative forms ........................................ 149
Dates and age ........................................... 149
Fractions ................................................ 1^0
The clock ............................................... i51
Money.................................................. 1"
Some idioms ............................................ 153
Numerals written as words or figures ....................... 154
PREPOSITIONS ......................................... 156
Place ................................................... 156
Time ................................................... 159
Purpose................................................. 159
Means .................................................. 159
Attribute................................................ 159
Genitive ................................................ '59
Passive ................................................. 160
Prepositional phrases which
replace genitives ......................................... 160
Prepositional phrases which
replace compound nouns.................................. 161
Idiomatic prepositional phrases ............................ 162
II Sentence elements................................. 180
subject ..............................................180
«Det» as subject ......................................... 180
VERB PHRASE ........................................ 181
COMPLEMENT......................................... 182
OBJECT................................................ 183
INDIRECT OBJECT .................................... 184
ADVERBIAL........................................... 185
III Sentence structure ................................ 186
MAIN CLAUSES ....................................... 186
SUBORDINATE CLAUSES ............................. 186
IV Word order....................................... »88
MAIN CLAUSES ....................................... 188
Position of the subject .................................... 188
Position of the verb phrase ................................ 188
Position of the adverhial ..................................190
Position of the direct and indirect object .................... 192
Position of the reflexive pronoun .......................... 192
SUBORDINATE CLAUSES ............................. 193
SUBORDINATE CLAUSE RELATIVE TO MAIN CLAUSE 194
Subordinate clause first ................................... 194
Main clause first ......................................... 194
RULES FOR THE USE OF COMMAS .................... 195
Index.................................................. 197 
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