Центральный Дом Знаний - An Introductory Hebrew Grammar: Syntax

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An Introductory Hebrew Grammar: Syntax

Год выпуска: 1962
Автор: A. B. Davidson
Жанр: учебное пособие
Издательство: T & T Clark
Формат: PDF
Качество: Отсканированные страницы
Количество страниц: 313
Язык книги: английский
Описание: О книге: Введение в грамматику языка иврит. Часть посвящена синтаксису иврита и правильному использованию синтактических структур иврита. Книга также содержит сборник текстов и упражнений по повторению выученной темы грамматики.


The late Professor A. B. Davidson's Hebrew Grammar ran through 18 successive editions, the first one being published in 1874. The 19th edition, which was published in 1914, was thoroughly revised by the late Professor John E. McFadyen, and the Davidson-McFadyen An Introductory Hebrew Grammar has now run to the 24th edition. The fact that the plates are now so wTorn that further use of them has become impracticable provided an occasion for another revision of the Grammar, and I have undertaken this task at the invitation of the Society for Old Testament Study, whose advice on the matter was taken by the Publishers.

It was the wish of the Publishers that whereas the reviser should have considerable liberty in doing his work, yet certain characteristics of the Grammar as known and used should remain, so that the new Grammar should have some of the lineaments of its predecessor and should be recognisable as a descendant. A statement, therefore, ought to be given of the main ways in which alteration and revision have been made:

1. Transliteration. It will be noticed that the trans­literation of £ into 9 has been dropped and the sibilants are represented by the signs 0 s, X s, $ s, f2? s,which is now the common practice. The aspirate or fricative use of the B'ghadhk'phath letters is represented by bh, gh, dh, etc. (as formerly) and not by b, g, d, etc. (as is now sometimes done); the former usage may look clumsier than the latter, but surely must be continued in use, especially for learners, so long as terms like Kethibh, Methegh, Maqqeph, Niphcal, Hiphcil, etc. are used in these forms.

2. The order of treatment has been much altered in some parts of the Grammar. The first ten sections, for in­stance, have been rid of all tautology, shortened and recast, because, as they were, they presented a daunting introduction to the study of the Hebrew language. It was considered prefer­able, however, to continue to place much of the content of these sections at the beginning of the book rather than to introduce it incidentally, in an unsystematic manner, because they contain much which is of fundamental importance for the intelligent study of the later sections. The study of them may entail some initial drudgery, but the time of tribulation has been reduced as far as possible.

The other large alteration is in the part of the Grammar dealing with the various types of verbs. Those which are commonly in use, Pe Yodh and Pe Warn, cAyin Wdw and cAyin Yodh, and Ldmedh He verbs, are treated at a much earlier point than was formerly the case in order that the student's working vocabulary may be significantly increased at a correspondingly earlier stage, and that he may gain thereby much greater facility in reading simple prose passages.

There are, of course, many minor changes also; e.g. the study of the verb is not introduced incidentally in a section which professes to deal with the conjunction (cf. § 15), but is now explicitly introduced in § 11; the prepositions are treated more systematically, and cross references are given to aid the study of them; the contents of § 45, which, as it was, covered a wide range, have now been divided among three sections; the section on the Numerals has been largely recast, and the statement on Accents is no longer an appendix but is included as the final section in the Grammar proper.

3. The Vocabularies used in the exercises have been con­fined as far as possible to common wTords. That has had its effect upon the choice of material for the sentences or passages for translation. It was the practice in the Grammar to use sentences taken more or less word for word from the Old Testament; that had the advantage of giving students samples of the ipsissima verba, but it had the effect of bringing in uncommon words and forms which were often disturbing for a learner, and made footnotes essential. That practice has been abandoned in the new Grammar, and in many cases sentences have been constructed to illustrate the use of the chosen vocabulary, although they are often based on passages from the Old Testament. Formerly the exercises were based largely on short sentences which tended to have the appearance of utility models. A few of these short sentences have normally been retained, since they have the advantage ot giving the student quick and easy illustrations of the forms and uses with which a section is concerned, but it has generally been the endeavour to make the remainder of the exercises consist of longer (and, in consequence, more interesting) sentences, and, at least in the later sections, of series of sentences in narrative sequence. It will also be noted that in the later sections passages from the Old Testament for additional reading have been suggested. These a student may read with the help of a dictionary (e.g. Langenscheidt's) for the un­known words if he chooses. But even that can be dispensed with, and he can use a modern translation to fill out the meaning, because the purpose of suggesting such passages at this stage is that the student should get experience of reading connected passages in Hebrew prose rather than that he should add to his vocabulary.

4. Footnotes. It will be noted that few footnotes are used. An overdose of these in a grammar, especially in one intended for learners beginning their study of the language, can be disturbing and even annoying. Sometimes such notes contain comments on, or explanations of, forms which should never have been used; also their multiplication may simply be a sign of the need for a complete revision of the material.

5. General Vocabularies. The references in the General Vocabularies at the end of the Grammar are to the sections of the Grammar and not to the pages. That should make it possible to retain these references with little, if any, change, even when parts of the Grammar come to be altered in the light of experience and advice.

6. Paradigms. These have been considerably extended in scope in response to a request which has often been made by many teachers who use this Grammar. In the case of the Verb Tables, the sign '&c.' has been used only when it was deemed clear that the student could reasonably be expected to com­plete the conjugation of the form indicated. There have been added tables of the various classes of nouns and prepositions, and it is hoped that these will be found helpful.

7. Indexes. The Index of Subjects has been retained; that of Hebrew words has been dropped, the Hebrew-English vocabulary being made to serve the purpose which it formerly served.

8. Abbreviations. The abbreviations which are to be found in the Grammar are those which are commonly in use, but mention should be made here of two related symbols whose use has been found to be most advantageous for certain purposes. These symbols are > and <, the first meaning 'leading to', 'developing into' or 'becoming' (e.g. thorough > through, bittacle > binnacle) and the second meaning 'developing from', 'derived from' (e.g. sheriff < shire reeve, shammy < chamoix).

I wish to take this opportunity of thanking many who have given me helpful comments and suggestions with regard to the revision of the Grammar. I should especially mention Professors G. R. Driver, C. J. Mullo Weir, Cyril S. Rodd and Sidney Jellicoe, Mgr. J. M. T. Barton and Dr. William McKane. Not all wrhich they advised could be put into practice in the Grammar; their unanimity was not such as to ensure that. To accept some suggestions entailed the rejection of others; but even wThere suggestions have not been accepted, their proposal often occasioned a salutary rethinking of many questions.

I acknowledge with gratitude my indebtedness to the Rev. H. St. J. Hart, Dean of Queens' College, Cambridge, and to Dr. William McKane, a colleague in Glasgow, for their labor­ious, but invaluable, work in assisting me with the reading of the proofs. And I have pleasure in expressing my appreciation of the unfailing courtesy and skilled craftsmanship of the printers, E. J. Brill, of Leyden, and the great interest and generous co-operation of the publishers, T. & T. Clark, of Edinburgh.

To write a Hebrew Grammar is to essay a difficult task; to revise a Hebrew Grammar which has been in use for many vears is an unenviable one. Every experienced teacher is tempted to think that his way of handling the material is the only one which a sensible, practical teacher would ever use; and he has often composed his own Hebrew-English and English-Hebrew exercises and believes that they serve his purpose better than any others which he has encountered (or is likely to encounter). To determine what should be included and what left out is never easy and seldom, in the end, wholly satisfactory. To define the limits of the syntactical instruction which should be included in a grammar is likewise difficult; yet to add some such instruction is essential; it introduces a flavour of the living language into the dry roots of grammatical forms. It may, indeed, be that occasionally more has been added than some teachers consider advisable. Beyond such decisions upon particular topics, the general aim was to keep the Grammar as a whole about the same size as its predecessor.

It is true that I have introduced many changes and modi­fications, great and small, in this edition of the Grammar, but these imply no criticism of the work of the two scholars, Professor A. B. Davidson and Professor J. E. McFadyen, who were responsible for the earlier editions. The fact that so many editions have been called for gives ample evidence of the esteem in which this Grammar has been held for a period of over eighty years and of the extensive use which has been made of it in classroom and study. It is hoped that the changes and modifications which have now been made will not detract from the worth of the Grammar and that it will continue to find acceptance and to be used as widely in days to come as it has in the past.


Introduction.................... i


1. Hebrew Alphabet.................. 8

2. Vowel Sounds. Vowel Letters............ 13

3. External Vowel Signs. The Massoretic Points..... 18

4. Principles of the Syllable. Reading.......... 22

5. The Vowel System and the Tone........... 25

o. Daghesh. The letters Beghadhkephath.......... 29

7. The Gutturals and Res................ 33

8. The Article and the Adjective............ 37

9. The form of the Sentence in Hebrew. Maqqeph. Methegh . 40 to. Personal, Demonstrative, Interrogative and Other Pronouns 44

11. The Simple Form of the Verb, The Perfect. The Conjunc­tion. Pause..................... 49

12. The Inseparable Prepositions............. 53

13. The Noun. Inflection................ 58

14. Cases. The Construct State. Case Endings. He Locale . 64

15. The First Declension Kethibh and Qere......... 70

16. The Pronominal Suffixes............... 75

17. The Simple Form of the Verb, The Imperfect. .... 81

18. The Imperative, Infinitive and Participle....... 85

19. Intransitive (or Stative) Verbs............ 9°

20. The Jussive, Cohortative and Waw Consecutive..... 93

21. Scheme of the Regular Verb............. 100

22.The Simple Reflexive or Niphcal........... 102


23. The Intensive, Active, Passive and Reflexive. Picel, Pucal, Hithpacel...................... 105

24. The Causative, HiphHl, Hoph'al. The Accusative .... 109

25. Second Declension................. 113

26. Third Declension. Further Uses of Prepositions .... 120

27. Verbal Suffixes................... 124

28. Verbs with Gutturals or Weak Letters as Radicals ... T30

29. Pe Yodh and Pe Waw Verbs............ 132

30. cAyin Waw and cAyin Yodh Verbs.......... 137

31. Nouns from cAyin Waw and cAyin Yodh Verbs .... 142

32. Lamedh He (Lamedh Waw and Lamedh Yodh) Verbs . . 146

33. Apocopated Forms and Nouns from Verbs Lamedh He . . 151

34. Pe Nun Verbs................... J 57

35. Pe Guttural Verbs................. 161

36. cAyin Guttural and Lamedh Guttural Verbs...... 165

37. Pe 'Aleph Verbs.................. 171

38. Lamedh ^Aleph Verbs................ 173

39. Double cAyin Verbs................. ¡77

40. Nouns from Double cAyin Verbs........... 192

41. Doubly Weak and Defective Verbs.......... i>7

42. Some Common Irregular Nouns........... 100

43. Perfect, Imperfect and Participle........... T93

44. The Adjective, Comparative and Superlative..... 200

45. The Numerals................... 203

46. Miscellanea..................... 200

47. Appendix. The Accents............... 215

English-Hebrew Vocabulary..............217

Hebrew-English Vocabulary............. 240

Paradigms of Verbs................. 263

Paradigms of Nouns................. 3°4

Paradigm of Prepositions............... 3TO

Index of Subjects.................. 3IT



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